Sanctuary in Five Dimensions

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Sanctuary in Five Dimensions

In my last post, Tisha B’Av on Shabbat – A Relativistic Perspective, I wrote that God created His sanctuary in four dimensions — Bet HaMikdash (preceded by the Mishkan in the desert) in the three spatial dimensions, and Shabbat in the fourth dimension, time. I emphasized four dimensions because that was all we needed to explain the connection between the Temple and Shabbat and why we do not fast when Tish B’Av falls on Shabbat (but, instead, fast on the following day—Sunday). In truth, however, God created His sanctuary in five dimensions.

As we discussed in a number of posts on this blog (On the Nature of Time and the Age of the Universe, The Fifth Force, The Fifth Force – Epilog, Tumah and Taharah), Sefer Yetzirah, the oldest surviving book of Kabbalah, describes our world as a five-dimensional universe: A depth of beginning, a depth of end; a depth of good, a depth of evil; a depth of above, a depth of below; a depth of east, a depth of west; a depth of north, a depth of south. (Sefer Yetzirah 1:5)

In another place, Sefer Yetzirah again speaks of the universe as a five-dimensional construct: Shanah (“year”-time) – Makom (“place”-space) – Nefesh (“soul” spirituality), i.e., time-space-spirituality. One-dimensional time plus three-dimensional space plus one-dimensional spirituality equal five-dimensional temporal-physical-spiritual universe.

Interestingly, Kaluza (1921) and Klein (1926) proposed a five-dimensional geometry as a way to incorporate electromagnetic field into General Theory of Relativity. Their work was not met with much enthusiasm at the time and quickly forgotten. In 1971, unaware of the earlier work of Kaluza and Klein, in my first paper in theoretical physics, I also proposed a five-dimensional geometry, where the fifth dimension was energy. I was a few decades late. However, it didn’t take long for the five-dimensional space to be resurrected in the string theory. Today, I don’t feel as bad that Kaluza and Klein came up with my idea of five-dimensional geometry much before me. Sefer Yetzira beat us all by at least two thousand years!

Image result for five dimensions

Going back to Sefer Yetzirah’s universe – Olam (space), Shanah (time), Nefesh (soul) – we can say that God sanctified all three domains by creating a five-dimensional sanctuary. In the domain of space (Olam) — the three-dimensional hypersurface of the five-dimensional universe, this sanctuary was the Mishkan in the desert and, later, the First and the Second Temple – Bet HaMikdash – in Jerusalem. In the domain of time (Shanah), the sanctuary is the Shabbat. This part was explained in detail in my previous post. Now we came to the fifth dimension – soul (Nefesh).

The Torah says (Exodus 25:8),

And you shall make Me a sanctuary, and I will dwell among them.

Grammatically, it should have said, and I will dwell in it. However, God says, He would reside “in them.” Our Sages comment: “It does not state ‘in it,’ rather, ‘in them,’ that is to say, within each and every Jew.” (See Likkutei Torah, Naso 20b). The Lubavitcher Rebbe explained that in addition to the general sanctuary (Mishkan and Bet HaMikdash), each Jew should make his or her own personal sanctuary, so that God will reside within him or her.

This explanation, however, leaves the question open: why is the commandment to build a physical sanctuary (Mishkan) for God is given in a language implying that building such a sanctuary would automatically assure that God dwells within us as well?

The Sefer Yetzirah’s five-dimensional universe provides the answer. When God commanded “And you shall make Me a sanctuary,” He commanded us to build Him a Sanctuary in five dimensions. The fifth dimension is the dimension of the soul. Now we understand that building the Sanctuary for God in five-dimensional universe involves building a physical Temple in space, observing the Shabbat, and building a sanctuary for God in our own soul.

Although we don’t have the physical Temple, the Bet HaMikdash, in space, we do have Shabbat. And we are left with the sacred task of building the Sanctuary for God in our own souls. Succeeding in this soulful task will hasten the rebuilding of the Third Bet HaMikdash, may it happen immediately!

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By |2018-07-27T14:37:12+00:00July 27th, 2018|God, Mathematics, Shabbat, Soul, Space, Spirituality, Uncategorized|2 Comments

About the Author:

Alexander Poltorak was trained as a theoretical physicist in Russia. He is Chairman and CEO of General Patent Corporation. Dr. Poltorak served as an Assistant Professor of Biomathematics at Cornell University Medical College, as an Assistant Professor of Physics at Touro College, he guest-lectured at Columbia University School of Engineering and Business School. He is presently affiliated with the CUNY serving as an adjunct professor of physics at the City College of New York and Research Fellow at the Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers. Alex Poltorak authored several books and many articles. He blogs about physics, kabbalah and Jewish philosophy.


  1. STEPHAN PICKERING / חפץ ח"ם בן אברהם July 27, 2018 at 12:49 am - Reply

    Shalom & Erev tov…most quantum physicists (among whom are many kabbalistic Yehu’dim) believe there are, at least, 10 dimensions…

    STEPHAN PICKERING / חפץ ח”ם בן אברהם
    Torah אלילה Yehu’di Apikores / Philologia Kabbalistica Speculativa Researcher
    לחיות זמן רב ולשגשג…לעולם לא עוד
    לעולם לא אשכח

    IN PROGRESS: Shabtai Zisel benAvraham v’Rachel Riva:
    davening in the musematic dark

    • Alexander Poltorak July 27, 2018 at 2:40 pm - Reply

      I wouldn’t say most physicists, but those who work on string theory, do believe that there are at least 9 spatial (ten with time) dimensions. Five-dimensional theory of the type Kaluza and Klien propose almost 100 years ago, arises naturally as a special case of the string theory.

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