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The Fifth Force

“Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach thou it the children of Israel.” Deut. 31:19 The four known fundamental forces are: gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong (nuclear) force and weak (betta decay) force. Newton first described gravitational force in his famous universal law of gravity. Today, we use Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity to describe strong gravitation fields. Electromagnetism was described in the 19 c. by Faraday and Maxwell. Strong and week forces were discovered much later, in the second half of the 20 c. Since Albert Einstein started a search for a unified field theory, unsuccessfully trying to unify (describe by a single theory) gravity and electromagnetism, the quest for a unified field theory – the “Theory of Everything” – became the holy grail of theoretical physics. Strong and [...]

The Final Frontier

In this Torah portion – Devarim (Deuteronomy 1-3) – Moses recalls the travels through the Sinai desert when God told him: Be not at enmity with Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give thee of his land for a possession. Deut. 2:9 To put this into context, let us recall the covenant of the pieces (or covenant between the parts, Heb. Brit Bein HaBetarim), when God promised Avraham: On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying: “Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates; the Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite.” (Gen. 15:19-21) The [...]