Jacob’s Ladder

Then he had a vision in a dream. A ladder was standing on the ground, and its top reached the heavens. Upon it, G‑d’s angels were going up and down. Last Friday night I dreamed of an atom with a ladder wedged in the nucleus of the atom, with electrons jumping up and down the ladder. For those readers unencumbered by the knowledge of atomic theory, a brief historical introduction may be in order.  When the planetary theory of the atom was first proposed by Ernest Rutherford in 1909, it depicted an atom as a solar system wherein a nucleus is positioned at the center of the atom, with electrons orbiting around the nucleus as planets orbit the Sun.  However, there was a problem.  According to Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, accelerating electrons emit [...]