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action at a distance

/Tag:action at a distance

String Theory

Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them that they shall make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments, throughout their generations, and they shall affix a thread of sky blue [wool] on the fringe of each corner. (Num. 38) This past Shabbat, we read in the Torah portion of Shelach. At the end of that portion, Torah commands us to attached tzitzit—tassels—to the four corners of the garment. Reading about the white and blue strings of the tzitzit brought back childhood memories of how I first “discovered” the string theory. It was early seventies and I was about 12 or 13 years old at the time. Growing up in Russia, alas, I didn’t have a Bar Mitzvah, so I wasn’t busy studying Torah reading, or preparing [...]

Global or Local?

“And let them make me a Sanctuary that I may dwell among them.” (Ex. 25:8) In modern physics, there are two paradigms usually expressed as locality and non-locality.  Theoretical physics was born when Isaac Newton published his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687, where he formulated his laws of motion and the universal law of gravity.  The law of gravity says that two masses attract each other proportionally to the product of their masses and inversely proportionally to the square of the distance between them. This law said nothing about the nature of the gravitational interaction, it did not explain the mechanism of this attraction at a distance.   Newton was bothered by the question how one body may act on another body far removed from it with nothing in between, i.e., the notion of “action [...]